Surgical procedures with questionable indications: an update
This review summarizes available data on invasive procedures applied with questionable clinical indications in Russia in the recent past: mastectomy with the removal of muscles, extensive gastric resections for peptic ulcers, thoracic and abdominal surgery for diabetes mellitus, bronchial asthma and other respiratory conditions, overuse of surgery in tuberculosis, overtreatment of alcoholics. Among factors contributing to the use of invasive procedures with unproven efficiency have been the partial isolation from international scientific community, disregard for the principles of informed consent and scientific polemics. It is known that invasive procedures can exert a placebo effect. By definition, placebo must be harmless.